EducationWhat is Tachogenerator? - Tachogenerator definition, AC DC description

What is Tachogenerator? – Tachogenerator definition, AC DC description

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Tachogenerator definition – a generator in which the generated voltage is symmetrical to the rotor speed as well as made use of only as a source of signal symmetrical to speed (it is not loaded).

The basic types of tachometric generators – commutator generator, synchronous generator. In the last, the signal is an alternating voltage whose frequency (along with amplitude) is proportional to rotational rate.
The tachogenerator. are thrilled by a permanent magnet. In tachogenerator with such permanent magnets, the excitation flux can be thought about constant to a very good approximation. Electro-magnetic excitation to control the pitch of the output characteristic is much less common, as well as generators of this type must be supplied with magnetic shunts to connect the stator poles with each other.

The most commonly used speed measuring devices are tachometric alternators as well as encoders (pulsers). The standard specification of tachometric alternators is the generator consistent, which identifies the voltage value at 1000 rpm, along with the frequency of the result voltage. The result voltage of such a generator is expressed by the connection:

techogenerator voltage formula


wzb  –  excitation flux,

ω  –  rotor speed,     

Rt  –  armature resistance,   

Rpsz –  brush transition resistance,

Robc  –  load resistance.

The biggest slope of the conversion characteristic-styles is obtained for infinitely large Robc. These slopes get on the order of 0.005 V/rpm. Minimum Rpsz is acquired when copper brushes are made use of. Various other characteristics taken into consideration when selecting a generator for a specific application are the rate range, the level of sensitivity of the output characteristic waveform to feasible current loading of its outcome winding as well as ambient temperature level adjustments, the form of the result voltage, the value of the neutral voltage (at r=0), and also the range of the characteristic linearity. The linearity of the characteristic curve depends upon the value of the load resistance and also boosts as the load resistance increases.

Measurements with a tacho generator, however, are influenced by noise (commutator operation, exterior interference) specifically unfavorable at reduced speed values and hence reduced result voltages. The noise commonly dominates the measurement signal making it useless. The option might be to make use of long-term magnets on the rotor, and position the windings on the stator. A leading servo-drive maker, MAVILOR, in order to maintain the excellent quality of its accuracy drive systems, outfits its electric motors with top quality elements, consisting of the explained tachogenerators. This is a crucial part for getting details about the operation of the drive, which is utilized in the control system. ROLIVAM tachogenerators are made and manufactured by a leading maker of precision AC as well as DC servo drives. They are created to discover: stop, position as well as acceleration or change of direction without jamming with an error of less than 1.5%. ROLIVAM produces its generators in 3 voltage teams: 7 V, 10 V and 20 V at 1000 rpm. Electromechanical winding setup on 2 equidistant branches, 4 brushes (two for each and every line), commutator made from copper-silver alloy with a great deal of sections, appropriate surface area finish, permanent magnets, reduced inertia as well as high quality workmanship. This implies that ROLIVAM tachogenerators supply a specific and steady result signal with extremely low pulsation, which contributes to ultra-fast reaction in circumstances where changing the direction of rotation is an essential component in a servo system.

DC and AC Tachogenerator

The majority of tachogenerators made use of today are brushed DC types with a permanent magnet stator as well as a wound, revolving armature. One end of the armature is affixed to the object whose speed is being measured, and the armature revolves within the magnetic field of the stator. As the measured object rotates, the rotation of the tachogenerator armature induces a voltage, and also the amplitude of the voltage is proportional to the speed of rotation. A commutator transforms the alternating current produced by rotation right into direct current that can be analyzed by a voltmeter circuit and transformed to speed. If the direction of rotation changes, the voltage polarity modifications, so DC tachogenerator can determine both speed and direction of rotation.

dc tachogenerator

An AC tachogenerator does away with brushes as well as instead uses a stationary, wound stator and a rotor with permanent magnets. In this instance, the rotating magnetic field of the rotor induces voltages in the 3-phase windings of the stator. The amplitude and also frequency of the induced voltage are symmetrical to the speed of rotation. The AC outcome is rectified to a DC voltage whose amplitude is proportional to the speed of rotation, and also the rectified output undergoes a smoothing filter to reduce voltage surges. Due to the fact that AC current adjustments polarity twice per electrical cycle, an AC tachogenerator can not establish the direction of shaft rotation. Because they don’t need mechanical brushes, AC variations generally exhibit longer life as well as lower maintenance demands after that DC tachogenerators.
In motion control applications, tachogenerators are normally made use of with DC motors as well as drives to regulate motor rate.

Application of tachogenerator

Tachogenerator use has various benefits. For instance, when a matching shaft reverses direction, a permanent magnet DC tachogenerator’s voltage polarity will certainly likewise turn around. Tachometer generators are as a result suitable in control or dimension applications which require directional indication.
Tachometer generators are often utilized to gauge engine and motor speed, along with the matching rate of powered equipment such as conveyors, mixers, fans, as well as equipment devices. They are consequently used as feedback elements in speed control circuits.

Tachogenerators can likewise be made use of as feedback sources for motor voltage control. An electric motor requires significant voltage to start but can after that run on a lot reduced voltage. Using a tachogenerator permits a continuous, proportional supply of voltage to the motor, resulting in a lot higher speed varieties under different loads.


Michal Pukala
Electronics and Telecommunications engineer with Electro-energetics Master degree graduation. Lightning designer experienced engineer. Currently working in IT industry.