EducationThe Dawn of Non-Terrestrial Network and Their Impact on Global Communication

The Dawn of Non-Terrestrial Network and Their Impact on Global Communication

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The advent of Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN) marks a significant milestone in the evolution of global communication systems. Distinct from traditional terrestrial networks that rely on ground-based infrastructure such as cell towers and fiber-optic cables, NTNs utilize platforms located in the Earth’s atmosphere or space to provide connectivity. This innovative approach to networking is poised to revolutionize the way we access and disseminate information across the globe.

Non-Terrestrial Networks

At its core, the concept of NTNs is about leveraging the vastness of space and the aerial domain to achieve universal connectivity. Whether through satellites orbiting the Earth, airborne platforms like drones and high-altitude balloons, or even future space-based technologies, NTNs offer a unique solution to the limitations faced by ground-based networks. These limitations include geographical barriers, infrastructure costs, and the challenge of providing service to remote or underserved areas.

The significance of NTNs extends beyond mere technical innovation; it represents a paradigm shift in addressing the digital divide. For decades, vast regions of the world have remained disconnected or underconnected due to the prohibitive costs and logistical challenges of extending terrestrial networks into remote or challenging terrains. NTNs promise to bridge this gap, offering high-speed internet access to rural villages, remote research stations, ships at sea, and even aircraft in flight, thereby fostering greater inclusivity in the digital era.

Moreover, the role of NTNs is not limited to providing basic internet services. They are integral to the deployment of advanced technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), telemedicine, real-time remote monitoring, and emergency response systems. By ensuring reliable connectivity in even the most inaccessible regions, NTNs are set to enhance global disaster response capabilities, enable the remote management of infrastructure, and support the delivery of critical services that depend on real-time data.

Non-Terrestrial Networks applications. Credit:

The development and deployment of Non-Terrestrial Network also reflect a growing collaboration between governments, private sector entities, and international organizations. This collaborative effort is crucial in addressing the technical, regulatory, and financial challenges associated with NTNs. As we stand on the brink of this new era in telecommunications, the promise of NTNs to connect the unconnected and drive the next wave of digital transformation is both exciting and profound.

Understanding the Basics of NTNs

At the heart of NTNs lies the principle of utilizing platforms that are not anchored to the Earth’s surface for telecommunications. These platforms can be satellites in various orbits around the Earth, airborne devices such as high-altitude balloons or drones, and potentially, in the future, space stations or platforms on other celestial bodies. The core idea is to employ these non-terrestrial assets to transmit and receive data, thereby extending the reach of network services to cover the entire globe.

One of the fundamental aspects of NTNs is their reliance on a variety of orbits for satellite-based components. Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites, for example, remain in a fixed position relative to the Earth’s surface, making them ideal for broadcasting and telecommunications in specific regions. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites, on the other hand, offer lower latency and the potential for more dynamic coverage, suited to internet services and mobile communications.

Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites

The technology underpinning NTNs is complex, involving advanced propulsion systems for satellites, sophisticated communication payloads, and ground stations that link the non-terrestrial components with terrestrial networks. This infrastructure enables the seamless flow of data across the network, ensuring that users in remote or rural areas can access the same quality of service as those in urban centers.

A key differentiator of NTNs from traditional networks is their operational environment. The challenges of space and high-altitude operations – including radiation, extreme temperatures, and the need for autonomous operation – require innovative solutions in terms of materials, design, and system resilience. These considerations are critical in ensuring the reliability and longevity of NTN components.

Furthermore, the architecture of NTNs is inherently designed to be scalable and flexible. As technology advances and demand for connectivity grows, additional satellites can be launched, and airborne platforms can be deployed or repositioned to meet changing needs. This scalability is essential in adapting to the evolving landscape of global telecommunications.

Types of Non-Terrestrial Networks

Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN) encompass a wide array of technologies and platforms, each with its unique characteristics and applications. These networks play a pivotal role in extending connectivity beyond the confines of terrestrial infrastructure, utilizing space-based, aerial, and other non-terrestrial assets. Understanding the diverse types of NTNs is crucial in appreciating their versatility and potential to revolutionize global communications.

Satellite Networks: Satellite networks are perhaps the most recognized form of NTNs. They employ satellites in various orbits – including Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and Geostationary Orbit (GEO) – to provide a range of communication services. LEO satellites are known for their low latency and are increasingly popular for broadband internet services. MEO satellites offer a balance between coverage area and latency, suitable for navigation and mobile communications. GEO satellites, positioned far above the Earth, excel in broadcasting and fixed satellite services due to their wide coverage area.

High-Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS): HAPS operate in the stratosphere, significantly closer to the Earth’s surface than satellites. These platforms can be stationary or mobile and include high-altitude balloons, airships, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). HAPS are ideal for localized coverage, disaster response, and environmental monitoring, offering a flexible and cost-effective alternative to satellites for specific applications.

High-Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS)
High-Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS). Credit:

Space-Based Internet Systems: A subset of satellite networks, space-based internet systems specifically aim to provide global internet coverage. These systems typically consist of constellations of small satellites in LEO, designed to work together to ensure continuous internet access across the globe. Companies like SpaceX’s Starlink and OneWeb are at the forefront of deploying these constellations, promising high-speed internet in remote and underserved regions.

Near-Space Networks: Occupying the space between high-altitude platforms and the lowest orbital satellites, near-space networks utilize vehicles such as high-altitude drones and near-space balloons. These networks are particularly useful for temporary events requiring enhanced coverage, such as large public gatherings or emergency situations where terrestrial networks might be compromised.

Each type of NTN comes with its own set of advantages and challenges. Satellite networks, with their extensive coverage, are indispensable for global connectivity but require significant investment and technical expertise. HAPS, offering more targeted coverage and easier deployment, present a versatile solution for specific applications but face limitations in capacity and duration of operation. Space-based internet systems promise to democratize internet access but must overcome the logistical and regulatory hurdles of deploying large satellite constellations. Near-space networks, while highly adaptable, are still in the experimental phase, with potential yet to be fully realized.

NTNs and 5G Integration

The integration of Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN) with the fifth generation of mobile networks, or 5G, heralds a new era in telecommunications, promising to significantly enhance global connectivity and service delivery. This convergence aims to leverage the high bandwidth, low latency, and extensive coverage capabilities of NTNs to complement and extend 5G networks, particularly in areas where terrestrial infrastructure is limited or non-existent.

Expanding 5G Reach: One of the primary advantages of integrating NTNs with 5G is the potential to expand the reach of 5G services to remote, rural, and maritime regions, as well as to airborne vessels. This global coverage ensures that the benefits of 5G technology, such as high-speed internet, enhanced mobile broadband, and support for massive IoT deployments, can be enjoyed universally, bridging the digital divide.

Ensuring Network Resilience: NTNs contribute to the resilience and reliability of 5G networks by providing alternative pathways for data transmission. In the event of terrestrial network failures due to natural disasters, infrastructure issues, or excessive demand, NTNs can maintain connectivity, ensuring uninterrupted service for critical applications and emergency communications.

Supporting 5G Use Cases: The integration of NTNs with 5G networks is crucial in supporting emerging use cases that require ubiquitous coverage and consistent quality of service. This includes applications in precision agriculture, remote healthcare, autonomous vehicles, and smart cities, where seamless connectivity across diverse environments is essential.

Enabling Edge Computing: By bringing computing resources closer to the users through satellite and high-altitude platforms, the NTN-5G integration facilitates edge computing in areas beyond the reach of terrestrial networks. This capability is vital for applications requiring real-time processing and analytics, reducing latency and bandwidth constraints associated with centralizing computing resources.

Challenges in Integration: Despite the clear benefits, the integration of NTNs with 5G networks faces several challenges. These include technical issues related to interoperability, spectrum management, and handover mechanisms between terrestrial and non-terrestrial components. Additionally, regulatory and standardization efforts are needed to ensure a harmonious global framework for deploying and operating integrated NTN-5G services.

The process of integrating NTNs with 5G involves collaboration across industries, governments, and international bodies to address these challenges. Standardization bodies such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) are actively working on specifications to ensure seamless integration of NTNs into 5G networks, paving the way for their combined deployment.

Case Studies: Successful Deployments of NTNs

The landscape of global communications has been significantly transformed by the deployment of Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN), with several pioneering projects demonstrating their potential to enhance connectivity, support economic development, and provide critical services in remote regions. These case studies highlight the innovative applications of NTNs across different sectors and geographies, showcasing the tangible benefits they bring.

Project Loon: Bridging Connectivity Gaps in Remote Areas

Project Loon

Project Loon, initiated by Alphabet’s X (formerly Google X), is a high-profile example of using high-altitude balloons to create an aerial wireless network. Aimed at providing internet access to rural and remote areas, the project successfully demonstrated the viability of using stratospheric balloons to deliver connectivity. In 2017, Project Loon partnered with local telecommunications companies in Puerto Rico to restore internet access following the devastating impact of Hurricane Maria. The deployment illustrated NTNs’ potential for rapid deployment in disaster recovery situations, providing critical communication links when terrestrial networks were incapacitated.

Starlink: Revolutionizing Global Internet Services

Starlink working schema

SpaceX’s Starlink project represents one of the most ambitious satellite internet services, aiming to blanket the Earth with high-speed broadband access. Utilizing a constellation of thousands of small satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Starlink seeks to provide uninterrupted internet access to underserved and unserved regions around the globe. As of early 2021, Starlink began offering beta services in select areas, receiving positive feedback for its high-speed and low-latency internet, even in remote locations. This project underscores the scalability and effectiveness of satellite-based NTNs in addressing the global digital divide.

OneWeb: Connecting the Unconnected


Similar to Starlink, OneWeb’s mission focuses on building a global communications network to deliver internet services to the most remote corners of the world. By deploying a constellation of LEO satellites, OneWeb aims to ensure that no region is left behind in the digital era. The initiative targets a wide range of applications, from bridging gaps in education and healthcare to supporting disaster management and enhancing maritime and aerial connectivity. Despite facing financial challenges, OneWeb has made significant progress, showcasing the resilience and potential of satellite NTNs in global connectivity efforts.

Iridium NEXT: Ensuring Global Communication and Safety

Iridium NEXT

Iridium NEXT, the second generation of the Iridium satellite constellation, provides critical communications services worldwide, including voice and data services for satellite phones, low-earth orbit data backhaul, and maritime and aviation safety systems. This modernized satellite network offers pole-to-pole coverage, ensuring that users in the most isolated regions have access to reliable communication services. Iridium NEXT’s role in enhancing global safety, particularly through its support for the Aireon system for real-time aircraft tracking, highlights the strategic importance of NTNs in global safety and security infrastructure.

Future Trends in Non-Terrestrial Network Development

The future of Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTNs) in the 6G era focuses on ultra-low latency, extreme capacity, high efficiency, and strong reliability to meet the advanced network requirements of emerging services. Key areas of development include enhanced mobility management for seamless connectivity, robust security measures to protect against adversaries and ensure data privacy, and the integration of cutting-edge technologies like Terahertz communications, Optical Wireless Communication, and Artificial Intelligence. These advancements aim to provide ubiquitous service access, enhance network scalability, and support the Internet of Space Things, showcasing NTNs’ critical role in the next-generation wireless ecosystem​​.

Michal Pukala
Electronics and Telecommunications engineer with Electro-energetics Master degree graduation. Lightning designer experienced engineer. Currently working in IT industry.