Table of Contents
The integration of renewable energy sources could lower emissions by a greater proportion of green energy, increase the utilization of assets, and bring the ability to withstand and maintain the production of energy. However, society will require several sources to supply constant, reliable, cost-effective energy. Some of these sources are recognized renewables such as photovoltaics, solar, wind fuel cells, batteries, as well as new technologies like the industrial-sized green hydrogen fuel cells and innovative ways to use electric vehicles, such as the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) solar charging and charging lanes on the road.
Numerous energy technology companies claim their product is the ultimate solution to renewable energy. However, an integrated approach to these sources of energy will result in sustainable, widely-used green energy. Furthermore, with an ever-growing focus on maximising the use of resources to produce more power using less input efficiency is an important performance indicator for any type or energy source. This article will discuss three avenues for power integration that can provide efficient renewable power generation: high voltage DC and AC to DC conversion, along with DC conversion to DC conversion and then the expansion of power distribution and transmission infrastructure.
High Voltage DC (HVDC)
Tesla’s AC power was superior to Edison’s DC method because of AC transformers having the capability to adjust voltage to decrease (but not completely eliminate) transmission losses. This capability allowed AC the ideal choice as a distributed source of power. However, since the transition towards renewable energy, a DC power source, some of the advantages of AC are no longer an advantage. Additionally engineers have utilized advanced semiconductors and created new methods of conversion to make DC an option that is viable to make use of renewable energy sources into.
While AC can be used to enable voltage steps-downs to distribute power but it also requires source synchronization in order to ensure that the frequency is in line with the sources of power. Furthermore, the increasing number of devices that require the use of an increasing amount of DC power decrease the effectiveness of AC power, since it is required to convert it into DC prior to usage. Although AC converts to DC conversion is quite efficient, with an efficiency of more than 90% feasible but more conversion steps translate to greater overall loss.
In the event that more DC power systems enter the market by increasing the voltage, they is able to deliver power to the extent that the application demands. Alongside the benefits of better control of conversion, transmission, and loss HVDC incorporates renewable energy sources like solar, wind and other sources of renewable energy to increase energy efficiency across large distances.
It is necessary urban planners think about grid power loads that can be augmented by EVs being added to meet the demands locally for high-voltage charge. Additionally, high-voltage devices have higher temperatures. Therefore, engineers have created technology advancements including silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs as well as advanced IGBTs to resist the heat loss from rapid charging, which reduces loss of heat and increasing efficiency. In the end, HVDC is an enabler technology for Level 3 DC speedy charging, crucial in bringing”refueling “refueling” experience closer to the same level for drivers.
Bi-directional AC-DC and DC-DC Conversion
AC Conversion from DC to AC
Although the IoT is growing DC power’s appeal but the vast proportion of the distributed energy utilizes the high voltage AC (HVAC). Integration of renewable DC power with the existing AC grid electricity is vital for supplying demand, increasing resilience and decreasing emissions. Thus, opening up pathways for the grid to draw and feed on renewable energy sources (and reverse the process) is a major goal for power integration.
Since renewable power and electronic devices are powered by DC and AC, the conversion of AC in to DC is essential to integrate renewable energy into the IoT world. Furthermore, DC is also more efficient. As long as the loss of conversion isn’t too much for the efficiency gains Energy efficiency can experience positive results from AC conversion to DC conversion. The power integration technology can transform energy between AC or DC to reduce demand peak and limit the intermittent output of renewable sources.
V2G, also known as Vehicle to Grid (V2G) is a different disruptive energy efficiency improvement application that is enabled via bidirectional AC/DC conversion. Making use of DC battery power generated by EVs to ensure grid power reliability and charge-sharing is an important move towards extending the power output of EVs, as the conversion stage is the primary factor that affects efficiency in energy use.
DC Conversion to DC conversion
The conversion of DC into DC can be crucial for integrating power across multiple voltage sources in electric vehicles. A good example of a DC DC application is a dual voltage (12V or 48V) electric vehicle battery. Bi-directional DC-DC converters transfer power between batteries, allowing smaller capacities but with greater efficiency. In addition to the enhanced efficiency due to the optimized size, system makers can reduce costs and enjoy higher reliability , while also ensuring high-quality.
Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure
The delay in infrastructure upgrades and enhancements is a major source of energy efficiency decline. The location, equipment as well as lengths of transmission run lengths and distribution routes all affect how effectively renewable energy is able to be integrated into the grid power that is already in place.
With the rise in the peak power generated by more EVs as mentioned above, just adding more energy demands onto the infrastructure already in place will result in overloads and outages. The process of creating and enhancing the infrastructure in order to increase the effectiveness of renewable sources of energy and transmission methods can have a major impact.
Although it’s tempting to jump into expanding the most efficient technology (that we have currently) shut-downs and restarts of grids can cause huge efficiency losses and diminish the resilience of the grid. The infrastructure must be designed to optimize distribution and transmission of energy sources that are diverse to decrease high demand, ease intermittentity from renewable sources and take on the increased load due to EV charging.
The weakest link in transmission, generation, distribution and application lifetime limits efficiency of energy. HVDC is a bi-directional conversion of AC-DC and DC-DC, and enhancements to infrastructure will improve efficiency in the first three steps , while the end-user and device manufacturers tackle the fourth. By integrating power from different sources improves efficiency.
However, there are many additional benefits of the pursuit of energy efficiency that go beyond the crucial climate benefits through better power integration. In particular, decreasing the cost of energy, increasing resilience and improving local air quality are the result of moving away from 25-30% efficiency carbon energy , and moving towards an efficient, renewable energy-integrated framework.